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2019 Vol.15, Issue 3 Preview Page
September 2019. pp. 440-449
Abstract
Purpose: Fire-fighting organizations are the very first agencies that take actions at a disaster scene, and emergency rescue training is carried out for prompt and systematic response. However, there is a need for a change due to the limitations in emergency rescue trainings such as perfunctory trainings or trainings without considering regional or environmental characteristics. Method: This study is to conduct theoretical review with regard to emergency rescue training and present a measure to improve the emergency rescue training through attitude survey targeting fire-fighting organizations in Gangwon area. Result: Facilities that cause difficulties when doing emergency rescue activity were mostly hazardous material storage and processing facilities. In terms of the level of emergency rescue and response task, most respondents answered that the emergency rescue was insufficient. The respondents answered that the effectiveness of emergency rescue training was helpful, but some responses showed that the training was not helpful because of scenario-based training, seeming training, similar training carried out every year, unrealistic training, and lack of competent authorities’ interest and perfunctory participations. Most respondents answered for the appropriateness of emergency rescue training and evaluation that they were satisfied, however, they were not satisfied with the evaluation methods irrelevant to the type of training, evaluation methods requiring unnecessary training scale, and evaluation methods leading perfunctory participations of competent authorities. Lastly, respondents mostly answered that training reflecting various damage situations are necessary regarding the demand on the improvement of emergency rescue training. Conclusion: The improvement measures for emergency rescue training are as follows. First, it is necessary to set and prepare various training contents in accordance with regional characteristics by reviewing major disasters occurred in the region. Second, it is necessary to revise the emergency rescue training guidelines and manuals for appropriate training plan for each fire station, provide education and training for working-level staff members, and establish training in a way that types, tactics, and strategies of emergency rescue training could be utilized practically. Third, it is necessary to prepare a scheme that can lead participation and provide incentive or penalty from the planning stage of training in order to increase the participation of supporting and competent authorities when an actual disaster occurs. Fourth, it is necessary to establish support arrangements and cooperative systems by authority through training by fire stations or zones in preparation for disaster situations that may occur simultaneously. Fifth, it is necessary to put emphasis on the training process rather than the result for emergency rescue training and evaluation, pay attention to the identification of supplement points for each disaster situation and make improvements. Especially, type or form of training should be considered rather than evaluating the execution status of detailed processes, and the evaluation measure that can consider the completeness (proficiency) of training and the status of role performance rather than the scale of training should be prepared. Sixth, type and method of training should be improved in accordance with the characteristics of each fire station by identifying the demand of working-level staff members for an efficient emergency rescue training.
연구목적 : 소방조직은 재난현장에서 가장 우선적으로 대응하는 기관으로 신속하고 체계적인 대응을 하기 위하여 긴급구조훈련을 실시하고 있다. 하지만 형식적인 훈련, 지역적 특성이나 환경적 특성이 고려되지 않는 훈련 등 긴급구조훈련의 한계점에 대한 변화와 개선의 필요성이 제기되고 있다. 연구방법 : 본 연구에서는 긴급구조훈련과 관련된 이론적 검토를 실시하고 강원지역 소방조직의 의식조사를 통하여 긴급구조훈련 개선방안을 제시하였다. 연구결과 : 긴급구조 활동 시 어려움이 있는 시설은 위험물 저장 및 처리시설이 가장 많았으며 긴급구조 대응업무의 수준은 응급복구가 미흡하다고 응답한 의견이 가장 많았다. 또한 긴급구조훈련의 효과는 도움이 된다고 응답하였지만 시나리오에 의한 훈련, 보여주기식 훈련, 매년 유사한 훈련, 현실감 없는 훈련, 유관기관의 관심 부족 및 형식적 참여 등으로 도움이 되지 않는다고 응답한 부분도 있었다. 그리고 긴급구조훈련 평가의 적절성은 대부분이 만족한다고 응답하였지만 훈련 유형과 상관없는 평가방식, 필요 이상의 훈련 규모를 설정하게 하는 평가방식, 유관기관의 형식적 참여를 유도하는 평가방식 등으로 만족하지 않는다고 응답하였다. 마지막으로 긴급구조훈련 개선에 대한 요구도는 다양한 피해 상황을 반영한 훈련이 필요하다는 의견이 가장 많았다. 결론 : 긴급구조훈련 개선방안은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 다양한 훈련내용을 설정하고 지역의 주요 발생재난 등을 검토하여 지역적 특성에 맞게 작성해야 한다. 둘째, 소방서별 적절한 훈련계획을 위하여 긴급구조훈련계획 지침 및 매뉴얼 등을 개정하고 실무자를 대상으로 교육하고 이를 위해 긴급구조훈련에 대한 유형부터 전술, 전략까지 실무적으로 활용할 수 있도록 훈련을 정립해야 한다. 셋째, 실제 재난 발생 시 지원기관 및 유관기관의 참여도를 높이기 위하여 훈련계획단계부터 참여를 유도하고 인센티브 혹은 패널티(penalty)를 줄 수 있는 제도 등을 마련해야 한다. 넷째, 동시다발적으로 발생할 수 있는 재난 상황에 대비하여 소방서간, 권역별 훈련으로 기관별 지원태세 확립, 협조체계를 구축해야 한다. 다섯째, 긴급구조훈련 평가는 결과보다 훈련과정에 중점을 둘 수 있도록 하고 재난상황별 보완사항을 도출해내는데 관심을 두고 개선해야 한다. 특히, 세부절차에 수행여부를 평가하기 보다는 훈련의 종류나 형태 등을 고려하여야 하며 훈련 규모 보다는 훈련의 완성도(숙련도), 역할 수행여부 등을 고려할 수 있는 평가방안이 마련되어야 한다. 여섯째, 효율적인 긴급구조훈련을 위하여 실무자의 요구도를 파악하여 훈련 유형 및 방법에 대하여 소방서별 특성에 맞는 훈련으로 개선되어야 한다.
References
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Information
  • Publisher :The Korean Society of Disaster Information
  • Publisher(Ko) :한국재난정보학회
  • Journal Title :Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
  • Journal Title(Ko) :한국재난정보학회논문집
  • Volume : 15
  • No :3
  • Pages :440-449